Chazhengina, S.Y.; Summanen, I.M.; Svetov, S.A.
Rare Crucible from Medieval Karelian Hillfort: Mineralogical Fingerprints of Functional Use
// Minerals, № 11(6). 2021. P. 648
Ключевые слова: minerals of ceramic fabric; crucible; non-ferrous metallurgy; bronze; thermal transformation; phase modifications; SEM-EDS; Raman spectroscopy; the Middle Ages; Lake Ladoga
A rare crucible with an unusually large volume and a pot-shaped bottom was excavated at the Tiversk hillfort (late 13–14th century—1411 AD) in the North-Western Ladoga region (Russia). ICP-MS data showed that the crucible might be attributed to local technical ceramics. Because of its specific volume and shape, which are not typical for crucibles used in non-ferrous metallurgy in medieval Karelia, earlier it had been attributed to the technical ceramics used for the cementation of iron. The present research has revealed tin bronze metal alloy along with copper sulfide minerals recorded on the crucible walls, suggesting it might have been used in non-ferrous metal working. Thermal treatment of the crucible at temperatures above 1050 °C is evidenced by the heterogeneous composition of quartz, the thermal breakdown of biotite, recorded in the temper of the ceramic fabric, and Raman spectra characteristics of hematite.
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